Saturday, June 19, 2010

A3) What is Yang and Yin, as well as the hexagram? What is the I Ching?

Zhou Yi doesn’t have any word of Yang and Yin in its text but only exhibits two symbols. It is Ten Wings of the I Ching, which introduces the concept of Yang and Yin.

Yang and Yin are two phenomena, brightness and darkness, in the sky, like day and night. Yang and Yin will change like the darkness of night changing to the brightness of day at dawn, and then the brightness starting to develop, reaching its peak and then going to decline; at dusk the brightness of day changing to the darkness of night. Yang and Yin will never perish each other, like Tai Ji Tu; white has black in the center and black has white in the center, and like four seasons: the day is increasing while the night is decreasing in spring, and in winter time the night is increasing while the day is decreasing, but both won’t vanish.

On the earth Yang is converted into things of masculinity and expresses itself in the form of stiffness (or rigidity) and strength …..; in human society, justice and the male …… Yin is converted into things of femininity and expresses itself on the earth in the form of softness (or tenderness) and weakness …..; in human society, benevolence and the female …….

The hexagram is phenomena constituted by the images of eight trigrams which are hanged up side down from Heaven as the oracle. The said phenomena of each hexagram emerge according to the mutual influences and interactions between two inter-mated trigrams which are represented by the real substances or their features on the earth. Every hexagram has its particular subject and its 6 lines present six different space-time manifestations in the era or world of that subject. Thus, life on the earth filled with variety is displayed through them, and these 64 hexagrams as well as their 386 lines cover all the possible incidents of the world.

In divining, the old Yang will change to the young Yin according to the oracle within the hexagram hung from Heaven. In the real world, the old man will pass away at last; however the male mating with the female will create new life. Hence the rule of Heaven is eternal, a change with the consistent pattern, while human life will physically end up with death, although it continues in the form of generation by generation.

The I Ching converts the rule of Heaven and Nature into the norm of human beings. What is the change of human world, i.e. that which makes cycling and cycling? It is not for an eternal life but how to live continuously, i.e. people should act timely according to the environment of a hexagram where they inhabit, seek measures and make a change. i.e. a break through, in plight. The I Ching, from the perspective of human norm, does offer people the way, like a hidden dragon not taking action, otherwise the hexagram will become Gou (hex 44), wherein a crisis is emerging, and one should wait till the moment of seeing the great lord at position 2 …….. and like the haughty dragon of hex 1.6 not fighting for the leadership while all masculine lines starts changing to femininity, and it will become auspicious, ……… and like the fighting of two dragons (Qian and Kun at position 2.6) ending up while all feminine lines are changing to masculinity since masculinity is the desired end of femininity. Once people can attain the true significance of a hexagram from the holistic view of its text, from the related hexagram, from the sequence ……according to the I Ching, they will be able to know how to take appropriate actions in the troublesome life, and make life keeping on going.


Saturday, May 8, 2010

A2) The Luo Shu square and the post-heaven diagram

The He Tu river map and the Luo Shu square are mentioned in Xi Ci Zhuan (the commentary on the text tagging) but without any illustration. The characteristics of the eight trigrams and the relationship between each two trigrams are described in Shuo Gua Zhuan (the commentary on the trigram) but without mentioning any diagram neither.
It is said that all these map, square and diagrams known to us were drawn later by Master Chen Tuan (陳摶, an archaeologist and the founder of Zi Wei Dou Shu (紫微斗數) in the 9th century) according to his study of the I Ching. From that he also derived the relationships among the five basic elements: metal, wood, water, fire and earth, which are used for most of Chinese fortune-telling methods.

The following deductions, showing how the post-heaven diagram is formed, are made according to the aspect of the five elements.

1) The He Tu river map and the five elements
2 and 7 locate at the top of the river map; the top (of the ancient Chinese constellations) is designated as the south, and the south is where fire is attributed. 1 and 6, therefore, is in the north where water is; 4 and 9 is in the west where metal is; 3 and 8 is in the east where wood is; 5 locates in the centre where earth is..

Remarks: a) The ancient Chinese faced the Plough to observe celestial phenomena; in this way the south is on top (of the constellations) and the north is at the bottom. b) The attributes of the five elements mentioned above are designated according to the Chinese geography and climate: the south is warm, the north is cold, the west is the mining area and the east is farmlands.

The river map reveals the relationships among the five elements in the form of reproduction: fire reproduces earth; earth reproduces metal; metal reproduces water; water reproduces wood, and wood reproduces fire.

The one reproducing is the parents, while the one reproduced is the children. Therefore the pre-heaven diagram is seen as the origination of the eight trigrams.

2) The Luo Shu square and the five elements
There is another relationship, subduing, among the five elements: metal subdues wood; wood subdues earth; earth subdues water; water subdues fire, and fire subdues metal.

The one subduing others is the commanding officer, while the one subdued is the property of the commanding officer; for instance, metal is the master of wood and it can carpenter woodenware to make a profit, and wood needs metal to make itself become a useful stuff.

Following the attributes and directions of the five elements obtained above, the Lou Shu square exhibits their subduing setup.

3) The forming of the post-heaven diagram

Kan is water, therefore, put in the north, and Li is fire and in the south. Qian and Dui are in the west of the river map; therefore they are attributed to metal and located in the northwest and the west, respectively. Zhen and Xun are attributed to wood; therefore they are located in the east and the southeast, respectively. Kun and Gen are earth; therefore they stay in the middle (i.e. at the diagonal positions which separate wood and fire from water and metal). Hereby the post-heaven diagram is formed.

The attributes and directions of the eight trigrams are displayed in the post-heaven diagram; therefore it is said that the post-heaven diagram relates to the application of the eight trigrams.

4) Integrating the post-heaven diagram with the performances and locations of the eight trigrams regulated by Shuo Gua Zhuan
a) Zhen and Xun are attributed to wood; wood locates in the east as the east is farmlands.
All creatures originate from Zhen (to move, the thunder), like the plant being aroused by the spring thunder starting to sprout. It locates in the east
All plants grow in unison at Xun (to enter, the wind), like blooming sunflowers being bent widely over grasslands by the wind. It is in the southeast.
b) Li is fire and locates in the south as the south is warm.
Li (clinging, fire) provides brightness and makes all creatures visible and able to see one another. It is a trigram of the south.
c) Kun and Gen are earth; they locate in the middle (i.e. at the diagonal positions, which separates wood and fire from water and metal).
Kun (submissiveness, earth) is earth, whereby all creatures are nourished; therefore it is said: all being served by Kun. It locates in the southeast.  
d) Qian and Dui are in the west; they are ascribed to metal.
Dui (joy, the marsh) is the autumnal equinox, where all creatures feel joyful while reaping crops and celebrating the fruitful harvest.
Battling at Qian (perseverance, heaven) means masculinity and femininity approaching each other at Qian. After the autumnal equinox, the bright masculine is overpowered by the shaded feminine. It is a trigram of the north.
e) Kan is water and locates in the north as the north is cold.
Kan (the abyss, water) is water. It is a trigram of the north. It is also a trigram of toil or fatigue as all life must work hard in the cold north and they return home where all creatures belong after almost one entire year working and getting tired. Therefore it is said: toil or fatigue at Kan.
f) Kun and Gen are earth; they locate in the middle (i.e. at the diagonal positions which separate wood and fire from water and metal).
Gen (keeping still, the mountain) is a trigram of the northeast. All creatures have accomplished their tasks and (are going to) have a new beginning; therefore Gen is seen as accomplishment.

Thursday, May 6, 2010

A1) The He Tu river map and the pre-heaven diagram

It is said that Fu Xi Bagua (i.e. the pre-heaven diagram) is derived from the He Tu river map, and King Wen’s Bagua (i.e. the post-heaven diagram) is from the Luo Shu square. However in the I Ching there is no any account of how they are related. The following is for your reference.

1) The chart below exhibits how the eight trigrams are created according to the proliferation of the masculine (Yang) and feminine (Yin).

The masculine (Yang) and feminine (Yin), called the polarities (兩儀 liang yi), give birth to four dualities (四象 si xiang): the young and the old masculine, as well as the young and the old feminine, and then the four dualities produce eight trigrams in a sequence of Qian, Dui, Li and Zhen (from the right to the left), as well as Kun, Gen, Kan and Xun (from the left to the right).

2) The drawing below illustrates how the eight trigrams are created according to the river map.

     Each group of dots represents a number, and the combination of the central 5 with the surrounding groups of dots produces the four basic dualities. For example, 5 plus 4 on its right equals to 9, which is the number of the old masculine. The remaining three dualities are similarly formed: 8 on the left is the young feminine, 7 at the top is the young masculine, and 6 at the bottom is the old feminine.
Similarly to item 1, by placing one additional masculine or feminine on top of each of these four dualities, the eight trigrams are created.

3) The drawings below illustrate how the pre-heaven diagram is formed according to Tai Ji Tu (太極圖):

After Qian (heaven) and Kun (earth) are positioned, in following the creation sequence of the eight trigrams (as per item 1 and 2) as well as the routes of the mutual increase and decrease between the masculine and feminine (unfolded in Tai Ji Tu), Dui, Li and Zhen are located counter-clockwise from Qian, while Xun, Kan and Gen are located clockwise to Kun, whereby the pre-heaven diagram is formed.

4) Integrating the pre-heaven diagram with the relationship between each two trigrams regulated by Shuo Gua Zhuan

  Heaven (Qian) and earth (Kun) are positioned. According to the above mentioned placement, the two trigrams at the diagonal positions act as follows: the mountain (Gen) and marsh (Dui) exchange breath with each other; the thunder (Zhen) and wind (Xun) approach each other; water (Kan) and fire (Li) won’t defy each other.